Hot water extracts of Coriolus versicolor are one of the most
effective and best selling immune support supplements in the world, and
the most widely used immune support supplement in Japan.*
The immune health benefits have been verified in hundreds of studies
and dozens of human clinical trials, making Coriolus versicolor one of
the most thoroughly researched medicinal mushrooms used for immune
Coriolus versicolor is known as Yun zhi in China and Kawaratake in
Japan. In the U.S. it is also known as the Turkey Tail mushroom and by
the scientific name Trametes versicolor. Coriolus versicolor is probably
the most common shelf fungus in the world.
Over 600 studies have been conducted and
published on the immune supporting properties of the 1-4, 1-3, 1-6
linked beta glucans extracted from the cell walls of Coriolus
versicolor, including 24 human clinical studies (14 placebo
controlled, double-blind, human clinical trials).*
There are no scientific or herbal references supporting
the use of un-extracted mycelium powder (mycelium grown on rice), or
tinctures (liquid supplements preserved in alcohol, also referred to as
cold water extracts ).
If you are intersted in the differences between Coriolus
PSP and Coriolus Super Strength please read the science section on the
Coriolus PSP product page.
MUSHROOMS OR MYCELIUM?
As mentioned in the Product Description area some
companies claim that PSK and PSP can only be extracted from the
mycelium, not the mushrooms, which is not true according to the U.S.
Patent filed by the original inventors of PSK.
It is true that the pharmaceutical company that first manufactured
PSK for the Japanese market preferred to extract PSK from mycelium
grown through liquid fermentation, also known as submerged culture,
because this process does make more sense for their business model.
The pharmaceutical company already owned the equipment needed to
produce the mycelium, the stainless steel fermenters or bio-reactors,
and they are able to grow a batch of mycelium in 48-72 hours, producing
the raw material quickly, when needed.
It can take up to 4-5 months to grow a crop of Coriolus versiciolor
mushrooms on wood. However, this is the method we prefer. Wood is what
the mushrooms grow on in nature, and it provides a far more complex
nutrient base than mycelium grown on rice or grown in liquid.
In the U.S.Patent detailing the extraction process the inventors
offered "Proofs" of the extraction process, where they extracted "PSK"
from both the mycelium and the mushroom fruit bodies. However, the PSK
extracted from the mushrooms had higher levels of immune activity as
compared to the PSK extracted from the mycelium.*
The research shows that the polysaccharide portion of the
extract enhances the cell-mediated immune response.* The 1-4, 1-3, 1-6
linked beta glucans that make up the backbone of the polysaccharide
molecule act as a biological response modifier and have been found to
support and enhance Natural Killer cell function, to stimulate depressed
lymphocyte proliferation, and to support the healthy growth of white
The research also shows these constituents to be effective
at supporting normal cell growth, improving cell-mediated cytotoxicity,
and increasing interleukin-2 production and T-cell proliferation.*
SELECTED CLINICAL STUDIES
The results of an eight-year human clinical study,
published in 1990, recorded substantial benefit from the daily use of a
Coriolus polysaccharide extract (obtained through hot-water extraction).
The group receiving the Coriolus extract experienced significant
improvements in immune health as compared to the group receiving the
placebo, with the leukocyte activity of the Coriolus group showing
It was concluded that “the beneficial effects were
probably due to the activation of leukocyte function as one of the many
biological-response-modifying activities induced by Coriolus.” In a
study published in Lancet, a Coriolus polysaccharide extract containing
the 1-4, 1-3, 1-6 linked beta glucans was found to have a “restorative
effect in patients who have been immuno-suppressed.”*
Hot-water extracts from both the fruit body and the
mycelium are used in current clinical practice and the published
research. The active constituents, the protein-bound polysaccharides and
the polysaccharide peptides, are found in the cell walls of both,
although extracts from the fruit body (the mushroom), have shown higher
levels of immune activity.*
Coriolus Super Strength is isolated using a multi-step
hot-water extraction process, creating the highest possible
concentrations of the polysaccharides examined in the Japanese research
on PSK. As these compounds are difficult to extract and easily degraded
with excessive heat, NMR and linkage analysis are used to ensure